VETO 2006, FARSIDE second packet tossups

TOSSUP 1
It contains medial and collateral menisci ["men-ISS-sky"] made of fibrous cartilage that act as cushions. The anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments restrict forward and backward motion and rotation. The medial collateral ligament prevents it from buckling inwards, and the lateral collateral ligament is the primary restraint to varus stress. For 10 points, name the human body's largest joint, connecting the fibula and tibia.

Answer:  KNEE


TOSSUP 2
In 1992 he published his first novel, Burden of Desire, set in the aftermath of the 1917 explosion in Halifax, where he grew up. His next novel, The Voyage, follows an amorous adventure by David Lyon, the Canadian consul in New York, the author's adopted home town. In 1999, four years after retiring from his day job, this author published his third novel, Broadcast News, whose protagonist, Grant Munro, had the same job as the author. For 10 points name this former News Hour anchorman on PBS.

Answer:  Robert (Breckenridge Ware, "Robin") MacNEIL


TOSSUP 3
This city contains the world's largest forest inside an urban area, the thirty-two square-kilometre Tijuca ["tee-ZHOO-ka"] Forest, within whose limits are an eight hundred and forty-two metre high granite rock with unexplained inscriptions called the Pedra da Gavea ["GAV-ay-a"], and another granite rock, the seven hundred and ten metre high Corcovado, which is topped with a statue of Christ the Redeemer. For 10 points, what city of six million people was founded in 1565 at the foot of Sugarloaf Mountain?

Answer:  (São Sebastião do) RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil   (prompt for more information on "RIO")


TOSSUP 4
In the second and third millennia B.C., this city was best known as a religious centre, with its temple of E-Mashmash dedicated to the goddess Ishtar. In the eighth century B.C., a library was founded here by king Sargon II, but it was his successor, Sennacherib, who moved his court here, to the eighty-room "Palace without a rival". Until it was sacked by the Scythians and Medes and Babylonians in 612 B.C., for 10 points, what was the capital of the Assyrian Empire?

Answer:  NINEVEH


TOSSUP 5
It makes two assumptions: one, that the wavefunction does not merely encode all the information about an object, but has an observer-independent objective existence and actually is the object; and two, that the wavefunction obeys the empirically derived standard deterministic wave equations at all times, the observer plays no special role in the theory, and the wavefunction does not collapse. The main rival to the Copenhagen interpretation, for 10 points, what is this view of quantum theory that allows every possible outcome of every measurement to exist in its own distinct universe?

Answer:  MANY-WORLDS interpretation of quantum mechanics


TOSSUP 6
After his death at age 32 from wounds he received in battle with the Spaniards, it is said that Londoners who came out to see his funeral procession cried, "Farewell, the worthiest knight that lived." Starting out as cupbearer to Queen Elizabeth, he also served her as ambassador and master of the ordnance and was best known for exemplifying the ideal courtier. Two hundred elegies were written in his honour, including Edmund Spenser's Astrophel, A Pastoral Elegie. For 10 points, name this author of the sonnet cycle Astrophel and Stella and The Defence of Poesie.

Answer:  Sir Philip SIDNEY


TOSSUP 7
At a Congress in Philadelphia, they wrote a Constitution with a President and cabinet officers, a Senate and a House of Delegates, designating themselves "a distinct republic within the American Republic". From their capitol in New York City's "Moffat mansion" they negotiated with the U.S. government and raised an army that armed and drilled publicly. They failed in their first attack, on Campobello Island, but at Ridgeway in 1866 they defeated Canadian militiamen before withdrawing. For 10 points, who were these Irish-American raiders?

Answer:  FENIAN Brotherhood


TOSSUP 8
In Dante's Inferno, those who have committed this sin end up in the third pit of the eighth circle of Hell, where they hang upside down in baptismal fonts with their feet on fire. Canon law defines it to include doing homage for spiritualities, or concealment of one in mortal sin or reconcilement of an impenitent for the sake of gain. Named after a Samaritan sorcerer in Acts 8, for 10 points what is this sin of buying or selling of ecclesiastical pardons or offices?

Answer:  SIMONY


TOSSUP 9
Israeli sources say that a quarter of all suicide bombings in Israel in the Second Intifada have been carried out by people from this city of thirty-six thousand. Israeli Defence Forces have killed at least ninety-six Palestinians here since April of 2002, when fifty-two more Palestinians and twenty-three Israeli soldiers lost their lives. For 10 points, name this West Bank city where a quarter of the residents of its refugee camp were made homeless by Operation Defensive Shield.

Answer:  JENIN ["jen-EEN"], West Bank, Palestine


TOSSUP 10
Warning: TWO ANSWERS REQUIRED. For most of their lengths, they are roughly parallel, running southeast about three hundred kilometres apart until the longer one makes a ninety-degree turn at Zaporizhia ["zap-or-IDGE-ee-a"]. Their estuaries are separated by about one hundred kilometres on the Black Sea's Odessa Bay. The shorter one forms part of the border between Moldova and Ukraine. The longer one passes through Kiev. For 10 points, what are these two rivers with very similar names?

Answers:  DNIEPER ["NEE-purr"]   (or DNEPR or DNIAPRO or DNIPRO)
and DNIESTER ["NEE-stir"]   (or NISTRU or DNESTR)


TOSSUP 11
President Chester Arthur commissioned him to redecorate the state rooms at the White House, which he did with walls and ceilings in silver, gold, and ivory, but was most remembered for the opalescent floor-to-ceiling glass screen in the entrance hall. By mixing different colours together while hot, he also devised an iridescent type of glass he named Favrile, which in his works was often combined with bronze. For 10 points, name this designer who is still remembered today for his lamps.

Answer:  Louis Comfort TIFFANY


TOSSUP 12
If you hike up the creek of this name, you'll reach the lake of this name, which is fed by the glacier of this name in the provincial park named after it. It means "red fish" in the Kootenai language, and in English it refers to the freshwater salmon abundant here. In 1998, an avalanche into the lake claimed the life of Michel Trudeau. For 10 points, name this B.C. glacier and nearby brewery.

Answer:  KOKANEE


TOSSUP 13
After serving as a decorated U-boat captain in the First World War, he commanded a Freikorps batallion in Münster in support of the right-wing Kapp putsch. When it failed, he took up theology. As pastor in Berlin-Dahlem, he praised the Nazi program as "a renewal movement based on a Christian moral foundation" — before falling out over issues of ecclesiastical independence and founding the Confessing Church, which got him put into concentration camps for eight years. For 10 points, name this Lutheran pastor who was neither a Communist, nor a Social Democrat, nor a trade unionist, nor a Jew, but the Nazis still came for him.

Answer:  Pastor Martin NIEMÖLLER


TOSSUP 14
In addition to a guard, two messengers, and a chorus, this play has six other characters, three of whom die by suicide. Eurydice kills herself in grief over the loss of her son, Haemon, who has killed himself over the suicide of his betrothed, who is the title character. As predicted by Teiresias, Creon loses his wife and son despite a decision of mercy that doesn't reach the title character in time. For 10 points, in this play by Sophocles, who commits the capital crime of burying her brother Polyneices?

Answer:  ANTIGONE


TOSSUP 15
It was first invoked by John O'Sullivan in 1845 in an essay titled "Annexation", which called for the United States to accept Texas into the Union, and also predicted that within a hundred years, Canada would "swell the still accumulating momentum of our progress". For 10 points, what is this two-word phrase suggesting that the U.S. would "overspread the continent allotted by Providence"?

Answer:  MANIFEST DESTINY


TOSSUP 16
Any particle located here will have an orbital period of about 11 and a half hours, which is half the orbital period of Mimas ["MY-mass"]. Because of two-to-one resonant forcing, Mimas's gravity pulls particles away from this region that's about four thousand eight hundred kilometres wide. First discovered in 1675 by an Italian astronomer, and now named after him, for 10 points, what is this space between rings A and B of Saturn?

Answer:  CASSINI DIVISION or CASSINI GAP


TOSSUP 17
The most notable Jewish member of this school was Isaac Ben Solomon Israeli, a physician at the Fatimid court and author of a treatise on definitions. Israeli's contemporary al-Farabi was the most prominent Islamic member and wrote of human reason as being superior to revelation. The seminal Christian work in it is On First Principles, a refutation of Gnosticism by Origen of Alexandria. Positing a single source from which all existence emanates, for 10 points, what is this philosophical school that mixes eastern thought with that of the Athenian Academy and was begun by the pagan Plotinus?

Answer:  NEO-PLATONISM   (or the NEO-PLATONIST school)


TOSSUP 18
"I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. / I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. / I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. / I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset." For 10 points, name this poem by Langston Hughes.

Answer:  The NEGRO SPEAKS OF RIVERS


TOSSUP 19
A pamphlet inviting people to a Ku Klux Klan meeting to discuss a "final solution" turned out to be a hoax. Instead, residents of this town who were unable to use Argyle Street responded in kind on Highway 6 by setting up a barrier of their own. Henco Industries was prevented from completing work on two hundred and fifty homes in the Douglas Creek Estates on land claimed by the Six Nations reserve in, for 10 points, what Ontario community?

Answer:  CALEDONIA, Ontario


TOSSUP 20
Honoured players: those of you who have distinguished yourselves by giving correct answers to questions in this packet may be referred to collectively by this name. You wouldn't get very far in life not saying "is", but don't say "it" around them, and please bring them a nice, not too expensive shrubbery. Led by a four-metre-tall character played by Michael Palin, for 10 points, who are these helmeted men in Monty Python and the Holy Grail?

Answer:  the KNIGHTS WHO SAY "NI"


TOSSUP 21
It's a number between zero and one. StatsCan has determined that in Canada in 2003 it measured zero point three eight nine. To calculate it, draw a graph where the x-axis is the cumulative fraction of all households, and the y-axis is the cumulative fraction of all income. Find the area between this curve and the line y equals x, and then multiply by two to get, for 10 points, what number that measures the level of income inequality?

Answer:  GINI COEFFICIENT   (or GINI INDEX)


TOSSUP 22
Its choir has an arcaded apse surrounded by an ambulatory and seven radiating chapels, which are merged rather than separated, and it is supported by ribbed groined vaulting based on the pointed arch, a departure from Romanesque architecture. Outward pressure of the vaults is contained by exterior buttresses. The work of "many masters from different regions" brought together in the twelfth century by Abbot Suger ["soo-JAY"], for 10 points, name this burial place of French kings and first major building in the Gothic style.

Answer:  Basilique de SAINT-DENIS (Basilica or Abbey)


TOSSUP 23
Today, July 15, 2006, this person is scheduled to appear with Gianni Clerici and Patrick Rafter in Newport, Rhode Island, to be inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame. With twenty-seven professional singles championships including the 1990 U.S. Open, and fourteen doubles championships including the 1988 Wimbledon Doubles title with Steffi Graf, for 10 points, name the Hall of Fame's first woman member from Argentina.

Answer:  Gabriela SABATINI


TOSSUP 24
In this device, a set of eight rovings are attached to a beam that can roll from a wheel at one end to another end with eight spindles. A clamp-like device in the roving beam allows the operator to release all the threads of yarn at once to collect them on spools. An improvement of John Kay's flying shuttle, for ten points, what is this invention patented in 1770 by James Hargreaves?

Answer:  SPINNING JENNY


Vancouver Estival Trivia Open, 2006, FARSIDE team, second packet