Tossups by Caltech (M. Swiatek, J. Catherwood, J. DenHartog, J. Meltzer and R. Mason)
1. Their carbonyl groups can be removed by the Hoffman hypobromite reaction. Their characterization was important to the study of protein structure, since their resonance structures constrain the peptide bond to be planar. They can be hydrolyzed to carboxylic acids and ammonia or synthesized by treating acid chlorides with amines. For 10 points--what class of organic molecules contains the functional group CONR2, whose name is also used to describe the conjugate acids of amines?
2. In the 1947 movie version of this novel, its author appears as a minor character played by Herbert Marshall. After Larry breaks his engagement with Isabel to seek enlightenment in India, Isabel marries Gray for money, goes broke in the 1929 crash, moves to Paris and drives Larry's new fiancée Sophie back to her old ways as an opium whore. For 10 points--identify this 1944 novel by W. Somerset Maugham, whose title object may have been the instrument that decapitated Sophie in the end.
answer: The Razor's Edge
3. The local judge acquits him after his first apprentice dies in a fishing accident, but when he becomes abusive, his second apprentice dies accidentally while climbing down a cliff. This second death further enrages the townspeople, and a mob tries to kill him, but he kills himself before they get the chance. For 10 points--—this is a brief synopsis of what 1945 opera, featuring Ned, Auntie, and the title character, composed by Benjamin Britten?
answer: Peter Grimes
4. Uninstall. Using "regedit" find key 35D38C12-1434-AB73-003483943341AA. Delete every key which contains an instance of the ID number associated with this key. Restart your computer, then reinstall the program, using a different username. For 10 points--this is the procedure for regaining the ability to use what software program, the archnemesis of Dr. Dre and Metallica?
5. In a public debate in Ravenna he successfully argued that physics is a branch of mathematics and not a separate discipline, attracting the patronage of the referee, Holy Roman Emperor Otto II. He became the tutor and then the advisor of Otto III. His interest in science and his promotion of the abacus gave ammunition to those who considered him to be the Anti-Christ. For 10 points--name this man, born Gerbert of Aurillac, who in 999 became the first French pope.
answer: Sylvester II
6. In Common Lisp, temporary functions are identified by this symbol. In computer science, it gives its name to a formal mathematical system created by Alonzo Church used to investigate functions. In economics, it represents the Lagrange multiplier in constrained optimization problems. In physics, it represents the wavelength of a transverse wave. For 10 points--identify this symbol, eleventh in the Greek alphabet, that looks like an upside-down "y".
7. In the 10th century, King Howel the Great of Wales laid down a set of rules for making it, which included the addition of cloves, ginger, rosemary, hyssop and thyme to augment the medicinal properties suggested by its name, which translates as "physician." This Celtic variety was similar to the hydromel of the Greeks and Romans, but by the Middle Ages, yeast was no longer added and it resembled sparkling wine. For 10 points--name this alcoholic mixture of honey and water served to kings and thanes in Heorot.
answer: mead or metheglin
8. At Leicester he specialized in medieval history because it was easy, but he is disgruntled that in his university job he has to teach all the medieval stuff. His paper on The Economic Influence of the Developments in Shipbuilding Techniques, 1450 to 1485 is stolen and published in Italian by L.S. Caton, and he loses his job after giving a public lecture while drunk, but in the end he gets a better job and the beautiful Christine Callaghan. For 10 points--name this fortunate title character of a 1954 novel by Kingsley Amis.
answer: Lucky Jim (accept: Jim Dixon)
9. The classic 17th-century text on this subject was compiled by Bernhardus Varenius, whose work was revised in 1672 by Isaac Newton and remained the standard for over a century. The previous classic was a 17-volume treatise by Strabo, whose first two books reviewed the observations of Herodotus and the 3rd-century BC calculations of the Earth's circumference by Eratosthenes, who published the first work with this word as its title. For 10 points--what is this study of the surface of the earth, particularly concerned with location?
10. His 1955 dissertation concluded that race discrimination in labour markets has costs for both the victim and the perpetrator. By applying theories of production to households, he was able to make predictions about family size, divorce, and the role of women in the workplace in A Treatise on the Family. For 10 points--identify this University of Chicago economist whose idea that rational economic choice governs most aspects of human behaviour won him a 1992 Nobel Prize.
answer: Gary Stanley Becker
11. At the end of his life, he dabbled in science, introducing the art of mezzotint printing to England. He came out of retirement to become the first governor of the Hudson's Bay Company after the restoration of Charles II, with whom he had quarrelled after being chased from County Cork to the Mediterranean by his Parliamentarian archrival, Robert Blake. For 10 points--identify this Bohemian nobleman, the most talented Royalist commander of the English Civil War before his defeat at Naseby.
answer: Prince Rupert (or Ruprecht) of the Rhine (or Palatinate)
12. A very pure piece of tin or mercury cut to the right shape and size will exhibit this effect perfectly, while it will only partially occur for any piece of tin or niobium unless the magnetic field is extremely weak. This difference defines tin or mercury as Type I superconductors, while vanadium and niobium are Type II. For 10 points—what is this eponymous effect in which a magnetic field is expelled from the interior of a superconducting material below its transition temperature?
answer: Meissner effect
13. Early examples include Swift's Tale of a Tub and Dryden's Absalom and Achitophel, while modern ones include Drury's Advise and Consent and Huxley's Point Counterpoint, in which Mark Rampion represents D.H. Lawrence. The term may have come from members of 17th-century literary coteries, who enlivened their historical romances with fictional portraits of courtiers of Louis XIV. For 10 points--Orwell's Animal Farm and Primary Colors are well-known examples of what type of "novel with a key?"
answer: roman á clef
14. A potent laxative, it acts within 6-8 hours and its effects may last three or four days, with possible side effects including kidney irritation or skin rash. It was first synthesized in 1871 by Adolf von Baeyer, who, in the presence of sulfuric acid or zinc chloride, fused phthalic anhydride with phenol. For 10 points--identify this organic compound which is colourless below a pH of 8 and attains a deep red hue above a pH of 10.
15. Based largely on the Revelations of St. Bridget of Sweden, it depicts, in part, the Crucifixion and scenes of the Blessed Virgin. Now found in the Unterlinden Museum, it was commissioned by a group of monks who ministered to those suffering from ergotism in a town in Southern Alsace and provided the inspiration for Paul Hindemith's Matthis der Maler. For 10 points--identify this polyptych whose most famous wing features St. Anthony, the masterpiece of Matthias Grunewald.
answer: the Isenheim Altarpiece
16. His death in Kentucky in 1865 ended this captain’s three-year career with the Confederate Army, highlighted by an 1863 attack on Baxter Springs in which his men were disguised as Federal troops and a bloody assault the same year on the civilian population of Lawrence, Kansas. His outfit had begun as a group of guerrillas who killed and robbed Union sympathizers, and were treated as common outlaws by Union forces. For 10 points--after the Civil War, Frank and Jesse James joined one of the small criminal bands into which what man’s "Raiders" had fractured?
answer: William Clark Quantrill (accept: Charley Hart)
17. In 2000, the settlers of this island will be transplanted to Nuremburg, where they will build walls, trade routes and factories in honor of the city's founding. In the year 2700 its citizens will gain space travel ability and become starfarers, each with their own solar system and mother ship, a far cry from the gold and pirates prominent during its seafaring age. For 10 points--identify this landmass whose principal crops include wheat, ore, sheep, clay and lumber, the focus of a series of popular German board games.
answer: Catan (accept: Settlers of Catan or Die Siedler von Catan)
18. At professional conferences, this zealous disciple of I.V. Michurin viciously attacked opponents Hermann Muller and Nikolas Vavilov; Muller escaped with a 1946 Nobel prize, but Vavilov died in a concentration camp where he had been imprisoned for favouring the cultivation of hybrid corn. For 10 points--identify this scientist who believed that wheat raised in the proper environment would produce rye, the controversial dictator of Communistic agriculture under Stalin.
answer: Trofim Denisovich Lysenko
19. The American branch of this 19th-century movement grew out of the Emmet Monument Association founded by John O'Mahoney and attempted to achieve its goals by capturing Canada and holding it hostage, while the Irish branch, founded by James Stephens, threw its resources into a fleet of submarines with which they hoped to destroy England. Also known as the Irish Republican Brotherhood--for 10 points--name this Irish secret society named for the legendary band of warriors led by Finn MacCool.
answer: Fenian Society (accept: Irish Republican Brotherhood early)
20. The novel's protagonist tutors the children and beds the wife of Monsieur de Rénal, later joining a monastery before becoming secretary to the Marquis de la Mole, whose necrophiliac daughter Matilde he impregnates and is to marry. Madame de Rénal gets religion and reveals her affair with Matilde's fiancé to the Marquis, compelling Julien to shoot his former mistress in church, a crime for which he is guillotined. For 10 points--identify this racy, vice-ridden 1830 novel, Al Gore's favorite, the best-known work of Stendhal.
answer: The Red and the Black or Le rouge et le noir