The Herbert Spencer Memorial Singles Tournament

Seeding Round 2

 

Editing and non-science questions by Matt Weiner

Science by Edmund Schluessel, Mike Davies, Jon Misurda, and Matt Weiner

 

1. An analogy of the state to the parent is used to explain why violating a criminal sentence would be a far greater crime than wrongly convicting a man. The title figure, a rich man, offers to bribe the guards and help a certain prisoner escape, but Socrates declines. FTP, name this Platonic dialogue.

ANSWER: Crito

 

2. Thirty-two in number, they were originally published under the pseudonym “Jebediah Cleisbotham,” with their true author known to the public as “The Great Unknown.” They include Betrothed, Tapestried Chamber, and Antiquary, the sub-series Tales of My Landlord, as well as several works known individually, such as The Heart of Midlothian, The Bride of Lamermoor, and Rob Roy. FTP, identify this series of novels set chiefly in Scotland, written by Walter Scott.

ANSWER: The Waverly novels

 

3. Dayanand Bandodkar was its first Chief Governor after it changed hands. It became a state in 1987 after a 1967 vote declined to integrate it into neighboring regions. Five years before the vote, it had been acquired in a brief action after the shelling of the Sabarmati near Anjidive Island. FTP, name this southwest Indian enclave from which the Portuguese were expelled by the Nehru government.

ANSWER: Goa

 

4. They always result in two free throws. Class 2 triggers an automatic ejection. The most famous one at the professional level might be Kermit Washington’s punch to the face of Rudy Tomjanovich. Usually, it is called for such mundane things as elbowing opponents in the face or kicking. FTP, name this class of interpersonal rules violation in basketball.

ANSWER: flagrant fouls

 

5. His consort is Bharati. A club, a discus, a lotus blossom, and a conch shell may be found in his four hands. His most striking characteristic, sometimes said to have been stolen from Indra, was acquired due to his defense of his mother Parvati’s honor from Shiva. FTP, name this graceful, elephant-headed god.

ANSWER: Ganesha

 

6. Northern elephant seals, whose population was rebuilt from the verge of extinction, contain no heterozygous genes. One sixtieth of the British population of Tristan da Cunha has retinitis pigmentosa. Thirty thousand South Africans with porphyria are descendants of a certain seventeenth-century couple. FTP, identify the type of genetic drift at work in such examples.

ANSWER: founder effect

 

7. The couple at the center of this work has seven children: Kuti dies from malnutrition, and a journey to the city to find Murugan is not successful. Raja is beaten to death while searching for food, Arjun and Thambi are fired from the tannery for instigating a strike and move to Sri Lanka, and Ira becomes a prostitute. Selvam, however, acquires an education and is apprenticed to the doctor Kenny, who supports Ruku and the adopted final child, Pulu, after Nathan’s death. FTP, identify this novel by Kamala Markandaya.

ANSWER: Nectar in a Sieve

 

8. It originated as a medieval German gambling device. To escape a community prohibition on games of chance, a religious message was added: The phrase “a great miracle happened there” is represented by the letters shin, nun, hey, and gimmel. The letters retain their secular associations, such as winning the entire pot or half of it. FTP, name this toy used on Hannukah.

ANSWER: dreidel [accept teetotum]

 

9. Using the vis-viva equation, one can easily find the delta-v needed to enter one; let the second term be the arithmetic mean of the lower and higher orbits' radii. They require only two delta-v's, as at both endpoints they are tangent to the initial and final orbits. FTP, name these elliptical paths, first worked out by their namesake discoverer in 1925, the most fuel-efficient transfer orbit between one circular path and another.

ANSWER: Hohmann transfer orbit

 

10. Chapter two, “The Free Spirit,” describes the person free of preconceived notions who can truly philosophize. The preceding chapter, “On the Prejudices of Philosophers,” asserts that most systems of thought exist only to justify creators’ biases. Composed of 296 aphorisms, one part explicity rebukes anti-Semitism, making links between its author and the Nazis tenuous. FTP, name this Friedrich Nietzsche work about transcending old morality.

ANSWER: Beyond Good and Evil [or Jenseits von Gut une Böse]

 

11. First appearing in a June 5, 2000 game against the Giants, it is only supposed to be used after the seventh inning with a runner on base. Played by a capuchin named Katie, a website lists its vitals as “Throws: Right; Swings: Both; Peels Bananas: Left.” FTP, name this animal credited with the Anaheim Angels’ comeback wins.

ANSWER: Rally Monkey

 

12. His governmental reforms included limiting the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts to only those offenses described in his Circumspecte agatis and convening the Model Parliament. An expansionist, he issued the Statute of Rhuddlan which imposed English government on Wales, and he seized the Stone of Scone and fought the forces of William Wallace in his efforts to conquer Scotland. FTP, identify this son of Henry III, nicknamed “Longshanks,” who ruled as the Plantagenet king of England from 1272 to 1307.

ANSWER: Edward I [prompt on Edward]

 

13. He starred in such Broadway musicals as Sinbad and Wonder Bar, and it was in Bombo that he first sang “My Mammy.” While touring with Dockstader’s Minstrels, he had developed his blackface routine. Elements of his life are present in one of his films, such as being the son of a cantor. FTP, name this star of The Jazz Singer.

ANSWER: Al Jolson [or Asa Yoelson]

 

14. The 1985 one created a commissionership with a seven year term to oversee the enforcement of its provisions. They do not apply to the Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, or Indian councils. The 1988 one contains a section noting that it is prevalent over all other legislation except the Canadian Human Rights Act. FTP, give the common name for several bills which mandated the equality of the English and French tongues in Canada.

ANSWER: Official Languages Acts

 

15. Actually named Kudryavka, she is now generally known by a popular nickname. Her body was immolated on April 14, 1958, and a monument to her now stands in Star City. Found on the street and recruited into scientific work, no method existed for returning her from her final mission, so she died in its course. FTP, name this Sputnik 2 passenger who became the first living being in orbit, a dog.

ANSWER: Laika

 

16. Arising at the Ocean Plateau, it passes cities such as Blackfoot, Burley, Payette, and Weiser and goes over Shosone Falls. Its tributaries include the Gros Ventre, Owyhee, and Salmon. At Pasco, it joins the Columbia. FTP, name this river which flows through Hell’s Canyon.

ANSWER: Snake River

 

17. His early acclaim came from the Gurrelieder, which secured his teaching post at Stern Conservatory. There, he soon composed Three Pieces for Piano and Däs Buch der hangenden Gärten in the technique described in his book Harmonielehre. He died working on the oratorio Die Jakobsleiter and the opera Moses und Aron. FTP, name this composer who, in works such as Pierrot Lunaire, developed atonality.

ANSWER: Arnold Schoenberg

 

18. Tips on rioting are found under such headings as “People’s Chemistry” and “Monkey Warfare.” Beginning with a dedication to Jerry Lefcourt and a “Table of Discontents,” the core of this work is a guide to living for free in American cities, but it contains other tidbits such as a list of home phone numbers for Nixon administration members. FTP, name this 1971 work by Abbie Hoffman, whose title advises potential readers to abscond with it rather than pay.

ANSWER: Steal This Book!

 

19. Agreements which were signed to secure alliances and separate peaces during this war include the Treaty of Nymphenburg, the Peace of Breslau, and the Peace of Dresden. The claims of Charles Albert of Bavaria, Augustus III of Saxony, and Phillip V of Spain caused the eponymous transference to be contested, but it was Frederick II’s occupation of Silesia which sparked open conflict. FTP, name this war which ended when the 1748 treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle put Maria Theresa on the throne of a certain nation.

ANSWER: War of the Austrian Succession [prompt on First Silesian War]

 

20. The next work in Beethoven’s opus list after the fifth and sixth symphonies is a Sonata in A major for this instrument, while Britten’s opus 68 is a symphony named for it. It goes back at least as far as the “King Amati” made in 1572 in Cremona, but it did not become a leading orchestral instrument until the eighteenth century. FTP, name this instrument with strings tuned to C, G, d, and a; played by Gregor Piatigorsky, Jacqueline DuPre, Mstislav Rostropovich, Pablo Casals, and Yo Yo Ma.

ANSWER: cello

 

21. This narrator ends this missive by declaring intent to pack and leave and begging the subject to avoid physical contact, as the narrator cannot stand the way in which the addressee teases. The subject is accused of thinking that “love is to pray,” as the narrator apologies for not praying that way. FTP, “get away from the pain that you drive into the heart of me” and identify this song by Soft Cell.

ANSWER: “Tainted Love

 

22. Ino, Semele, Autonoe, Agave, and Polydorus were his children. He lived in service to Ares for eight years after killing a divine creature, encountered during his wanderings with Phoenix and Cilix in search of his sister. His victim became the source of a group of men who fought each other until only five remained; those became the ancestors of his city. FTP, identify this figure who married Harmonia and founded Thebes.

ANSWER: Cadmus

 

23. This country’s independence and subsequent civil war followed condemnation of the colonial regime do indigenato. A peace conference in Zambia created the Lusaka Protocol, which has been unsuccessful in ending intermittent conflict between a group led by Jonas Savimbi and the government first headed by Agostinho Neto and now led by José Eduardo dos Santos. FTP, name this country in which the MPLA government still must contend with the forces of UNITA.

ANSWER: Republic of Angola

 

24. He spent much of his reign leading an unsuccessful campaign to conquer the Deccan Plateau, eventually dying in prison after he was overthrown by his son; fitting, as he came to power by destabilizing the regime of his father Selim. He ordered the construction of the Peacock Throne, the Red Fort, the Pearl Mosque of Āgra and the city of Delhi. FTP, name this Mughal ruler who also built a mausoleum for his wife, the Taj Mahal.

ANSWER: Shah Jahan

 

25. An advertisement entitled Heed Their Rising Voices for the Committee to Defend Martin Luther King and the Struggle for Freedom in the South had trivial factual errors, so the Montgomery Police Commissioner sued for libel and won. On appeal, the Supreme Court ruled that the plaintiff did not display "a reckless disregard for the truth, or advance knowledge of falsity." FTP, name this case which established the “malicious intent” criterion for libel against a public figure.

ANSWER: The New York Times Company v. L.B. Sullivan

 

26. Unlike its counterpart, it varies as a function of frequency. It comes in two varieties, one of which applies to capacitors, the other to conductors, both given in units of ohms. FTP, name this alternating-current analog to resistance, usually designated X.

ANSWER: reactance

 

27. He participated in the Great Coalition with George-Etienne Cartier and George Brown. His first government collapsed after his receipt of foreign payments came to light in the Pacific Scandal, and he later campaigned for a second term with the “National Policy.” In that second term, his much-promised Canadian Pacific Railway to British Columbia was built on time. FTP, name this first Prime Minister of the Dominion of Canada.

ANSWER: Sir John Alexander MacDonald

 

28. As this play opens, its hubristic character’s mother is told to make sacrifices to countermand the omens of the prior night’s dream, which involved a dispute between two women and the defeat of an eagle by a hawk. Soon, a messenger arrives to tell that the recent naval battle has ended disastrously for the title group, but the omens which Atossa has seen refer to another loss, the imminent battle at Platea. Such defeats are divine punishment for unlimited ambition, says the ghost of Darius. FTP, name this Aeschylus play about the losses of Xerxes.

ANSWER: “The Persians” [or Persae]

 

29. Stephen King’s The Shining lifted large parts of this man’s “The Inn.” While he wrote several other works of horror, such as a novel about humanity being displaced by Brazilian vampires, Le Horla, he is probably best known for a realistic story which appeared in the 1880 Emile Zola-edited anthology Soirées de Medan. FTP, name this prolific French author of short stories including “The Jewels of M. Lantin” and “Boule de Suif” or “Ball of Fat.”

ANSWER: Guy de Maupassant

 

30. The son of circus performers, he and Albert Reynolds issued the “Downing Street Declaration” on the conditions for negotiations on Northern Ireland. He had defeated Michael Heseltine and Douglas Hurd to become leader of the Conservative Party, but his party had only one seat’s majority left within six years. FTP, name this U.K. Prime Minister who succeeded Margaret Thatcher.

ANSWER: John Major

 

31. Defined to be a measure of the asymptotic runtime of a given algorithm, it simplifies the problem by eliminating all but the fastest growing part allowing for comparison on a level playing field. FTP, identify this measure of difficulty for the worst case of a problem, named for an upper case letter.

ANSWER: Big-O notation

 

32. In the ball-of-light particle model, fields of it are the cross product of  fields of  electricity and magnetism. At an average particle energy of 10^19  GeV [giga-electron volts], which has only occured naturally when the age of the Universe was approximately 10^-43 seconds, it is thought to have become independent of the other three still-unified forces of the universe. FTP, name this fundamental force, weaker than the strong and weak nuclear and electromagnetic, which on large scales generally obeys Newton's law, F = GMm/r².

ANSWER: gravity [or gravitational force]

 

33. Leaving his partner, Francis Pontgravé, at Tadoussac, he traveled to Lachine and Hochelaga. Returning with Pierre du Monts, he mapped an area as far as Martha’s Vineyard. On his next voyage, in the ship Le Don de Dieu, he formed an alliance with the Huron during a Huron-Iroquois conflict. FTP, name this man who explored the St. Lawrence River and founded Quebec.

ANSWER: Samuel de Champlain

 

34. While he set standards for depicting movement, he was attacked as unable to depict emotion. Athena and Marsyas is one of his few extant works, all Roman copies of the original bronze, while A Cow from the Athenian marketplace was much celebrated by his contemporaries. FTP, name this sculptor of the Discobolos, or Discus-Thrower.

ANSWER: Myron of Eleutherae

 

35. She contributed to the nativist movement by hiding weapons in her gardens after she was deposed and repudiating the “Bayonet Constitution” of 1887 during her reign. Temporarily restored to her throne in the year following her overthrow, she remained in her homeland for another twenty-four years after being deposed in an 1893 coup, which occurred when John Stevens ordered troops to seize Iolani Palace. FTP, identify this last monarch of Hawaii.

ANSWER: Queen Lydia Kamekeha Paki Liliokoulani

 

36. The process for granting them was reformed in 1967. Their most notorious abuse came after Clement VI declared that the Church possessed a “Treasury of Merit.” By the time of Julius II’s administration, buildings such as St. Peter’s were being financed in advanced by the sale of these. FTP, give the name for a purchaseable remittance from sin, the sale of which did not sit well with Martin Luther.

ANSWER: indulgences

 

37. Their name is a portmanteau of Arabic and Latin. Heavier ones, such as furfural and vanillin, occur naturally and have pleasant aromas, and therefore are commonly used as flavorings. The lighter ones are used in the manufacture of synthetic resins, and the lightest is a common preservative. FTP, name these alcohol derivatives, which all contain at least one carbonyl group, general formula RCHO.

ANSWER: aldehydes

 

38. He convened the Zemskiy Sobor to modernize the laws and gained his nickname when he declared half the country an Oprichnina in response to plots against his rule. He killed three thousand boyars and at least sixty thousand others including his son. FTP, name this member of the House of Rurikid, the first Russian ruler to be crowned tsar.

ANSWER: Ivan IV Vasilievich [accept Ivan the Terrible; prompt on Ivan]

 

39. Representative Robert S. Scott is leading opposition to this program, and expected supporters such as Pat Robertson have already dropped out after learning that the Nation of Islam was involved. FTP, give this phrase used by the Bush administration as a code for giving government money to churches.

ANSWER: faith-based initiatives [or equivalents]

 

40. Originally called Manic Subsidal, they first signed to Nemesis, releasing the “Baghdad” 7-inch, then moving to Epitaph with the Ignition album. Their latest album was released by the band to Napster before hitting stores and contains a spoken disclaimer at the beginning from producer Jello Biafra. FTP, name this band behind Ixnay on the Hombre, Americana, Smash, and Majority of One.

ANSWER: Offspring

 

41. This Marxist mistrusted the “industrial proletariat,” instead predicting that “racial minorities and college students” would lead a revolution. His minor works include Reason and Revolution, Counterrevoltuion and Revolt, and The Aesthetic Dimension. FTP, name this author of One-Dimensional Man and Eros and Civilization.

ANSWER: Herbert Marcuse

 

42. Hans Georg von Arnim led the Saxon forces, and the Catholic cavalry under Pappenheim did not arrive until mid-battle, due to the splitting of the Catholic force beforehand. Wallenstein committed another error by retreating too soon and allowing the opponents to claim a Pyrrhic victory. FTP, name this November 1632 battle at which Gustavus Adolphus was killed.

ANSWER: Battle of Lützen

 

43. His earliest recordings are incomplete versions of “Honeysuckle Rose” and “Body and Soul”. “Au Privave” and “Scrapple From the Apple” are among his many admired compositions; he would have had more had he not died at age 34 as a result of heroin use. FTP, name this bebop saxaphonist known as “Bird.”

ANSWER: Charlie “Bird” Parker

 

44. His later work focuses on the role of language; books from this period include Discourse on Thinking and On the Way to Language. Understanding of his philosophy is hampered by his habit of inventing words or redefining common philosophical terms. His most important use of words came in his distinction between Vorhandensein and Dasein, or object-being and human-being. FTP, name this quasi-existentalist, author of Being and Time.

ANSWER: Martin Heidegger

 

45. An abandoned ending to this novel described the protagonist dying during military service in the Caucasus. Its climax is a letter in which a woman reveals that wifely duty has trumped the remnants of a prior love. Earlier, during an excursion to his family’s country estate, the title character had half-interestedly flirted with Olga Larin, shunned the affectations of future epistolatrix Tatyana Larin, and killed his friend Lensky in a duel. FTP, name this verse novel by Alexander Pushkin.

ANSWER: Eugene Onegin [or Yevgeny Onegin]