1. Tossup Literature/Language Arts

A new version of this novel will be published next year by Michael Lofaro. The new version will be in chronological order and will eliminate the first chapter. One character in this novel is Walter Starr, a friendly man who gives rides to several main characters. Name this novel set in Knoxville by James Agee.


ANSWER: (A) Death In The Family


Bonus (5 Parts)

Given the name of a short story collection, name the author:

A. The Neon Wilderness

B. The Snows of Kilimanjaro

C. Mortal Coils

D. Twice Told Tales

E. Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque


A. (Nelson) Algren     B. (Ernest) Hemingway     C. (Aldous) Huxley

D. (Nathaniel) Hawthorne     E. (Edgar Allan) Poe


2. Tossup Social Studies

All that is known about this man’s personal life comes from a short note he attached to one of his books. He was placed in a monastery at age seven, became a deacon at age nineteen, and became a priest at age thirty. He is sometimes credited for inventing footnotes and the usage of BC and AD. Name this eighth century scholar who wrote The Ecclesiastical History of the English People.


ANSWER: (Saint or The Venerable) Bede


Bonus (4 Parts)

I’ll name an event from French history—you name the English monarch who was on the throne when it happened:

A. Establishment of Vichy France

B. French Revolution

C. Empire of Napoleon III

D. Edict of Nantes


A. George VI   B. George III   C. Victoria   D. Elizabeth (I)


3. Tossup Mathematics (30 Seconds)

Find the y-intercept of the tangent line to the graph of y=x2 at x=10


ANSWER: -100





Bonus (3 Parts)

Given the value of two derivatives and the y-intercept, find a quadratic function that fits the description. Your answer should be in the form y = ax2+bx+c.

A. The derivative at x = 0 is 10, the derivative at x = 1 is 14, and the y-intercept is 5.

B. The derivative at x = 1 is 4, the derivative at x = -1 is 8, and the y-intercept is 12.

C. The derivative at x = 3 is 10, the derivative at x = 5 is 22, and the y-intercept is 1.


A. y = 2x2+10x+5     B. y = -x2+6x+12 (-x2 could be -1x2)

C. y = 3x2-8x+1 (-8x could be + -8x)


4. Tossup Science (10 Seconds)

There are twenty-seven types of this protein. The body has many natural uses for it—it accounts for one-fourth of the protein found in the body—and it has been used as a major ingredient in glue since ancient times. It is often combined with keratin, and it is a major component in cartilage. Name this protein which has been used recently in lip enhancement surgery.


ANSWER: Collagen


Bonus (4 Parts)

Answer these questions related to breathing and your lungs:

A. What is the scientific name for your windpipe?

B. What is the name for the sacs that hold your lungs?

C. How many total lobes does a healthy set of human lung have?

D. What is the name of the indentation on the anterior part of the left lung?


A. Trachea     B. Pleura     C. 5     D. Cardiac Notch


5. Tossup Fine Arts

This composer worked with the librettists Metastasio and Calzabigi. In 1761, he composed the ballet Don Juan. Several years later, he composed two operas based on Iphigenia. Name this Bavarian supported by Marie Antoinette whose Orfeo ed Euridice had a major influence on many operas that followed it.


ANSWER: (Christoph Willibald) Gluck












Bonus (4 Parts)

Identify these opera singers:

A. Known as the Swedish Nightengale, her fame began in the 1830s and took off in The United States when she toured under the management of P.T. Barnum.

B. In the early twentieth century, many people bought phonographs so they could listen to this tenor. He was the lead male at the New York Metropolitan Opera for seventeen years.

C. An American-born Greek soprano, her fame peaked in the 1940s and ‘50s. She often played Tosca.

D. His fame started in 1972 when he repeatedly hit high C’s, and it grew further in 1990 when he teamed up with Placido Domingo and Jose Carreras.


A. (Johanna or Jenny) Lind     B. (Enrico) Caruso

C. Maria Callas (or Kalogeropoulos)     D. (Luciano) Pavarotti


6. Tossup Literature/Language Arts

This play contains a guest who is eventually identified as Sir Henry Harcourt-Reilly. He is a psychiatrist who works with Edward and Lavinia Chamberlayne, a couple whose marriage is often strained by their attempts to entertain guests. Name this 1950 work by TS Eliot.


ANSWER: (The) Cocktail Party


Bonus (5 Parts)

Before dying in October, August Wilson completed a cycle of ten plays taking place in each decade of the twentieth century. Name any five of the ten plays from that cycle.


Fences, Gem of the Ocean, Jitney, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, King Hedley II, Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, The Piano Lesson, Radio Golf, Seven Guitars, and Two Trains Running


7. Tossup Social Studies

He was named an unindicted co-conspirator during ABSCAM in the late 1970s but was cleared by the Ethics Committee and is still in Congress. Name this Democrat who has been consistently pro-life and anti-gun control. This former marine from Pennsylvania created big news on November 17th, 2005, when he spoke out about the War in Iraq.


ANSWER: (John) Murtha









Bonus (4 Parts)

Given the scandalous Congressman, name the state he represents:

A. On November 28th, Republican Randy “Duke” Cunningham pled guilty to Conspiracy to Commit Crimes against the United States and Tax Evasion.

B. Republican Bob Ney is called Representative #1 in Jack Abramoff’s plea deal and might be connected to coin dealer Thomas Noe.

C. Republican Roy Blunt has repeatedly helped companies that employ his wife and son as lobbyists. He started helping his wife several years ago, back when she used to be his mistress.

D. Democrat William Jefferson has been accused of giving favorable treatment to a Nigerian internet company in exchange for cash and a job for his daughter.


A. California     B. Ohio     C. Missouri     D. Louisiana


8. Tossup Technology

They are an improvement because of their smaller pits, smaller beam and shorter track pitch. These improvements are possible in large part because 405 nanometers is shorter than 650 nanometers. Name this brand name which is missing the letter ‘e’. This new technology is starting to compete with HD DVD.


ANSWER: Blu-ray (Disc Association) (prompt BD or BDA)


Bonus (4 Parts)

Given a type of regression, state the equation a TI-84 calculator would use to approximate a scatterplot. For example, if I asked for quadratic regression, you would say y=ax2+bx+c. You have to use the same letters as the calculator—the calculator always starts from the beginning of the alphabet.

A. Median-Median

B. Natural Logarithmic

C. Exponential

D. Sinusoidal


A. y=ax+b     B. y=a+b ln x (ln is natural log)     C. y=a(bx)     D. y=a sin(bx+c)+d


9. Tossup Science (30 Seconds)

Find the moment of inertia about the cylinder axis for a solid cylinder that has a height of one meter, a radius of two meters, and a density of two kilograms per cubic meter. Include units in your answer.


ANSWER: 16 Pi kilograms meters squared







Bonus (4 Parts)

A hula hoop with a mass of ½ kilogram and a radius of ½ meter is rolling at one radian per second. Consider the axis of rotation to be the center of the hoop. Find the following:

A. Its rotational momentum

B. Its translational momentum

C. Its rotational kinetic energy

D. Its translational kinetic energy


A. 1/8 (or .125) kilogram meters squared per second

B. ¼ (or .25) kilogram meters per second

C. 1/16 (or .0625) kilogram meters squared per second squared (or Joules)

D. 1/16 (or .0625) kilogram meters squared per second squared (or Joules)


10. Tossup Miscellaneous

This celebrity recently sold his kidney stone for twenty five thousand dollars. He has recorded the albums Has Been, The Return, and The Transformed Man, but he is better known as an actor. He recently won two Emmy Awards for portraying attorney Denny Crane, though his fame is based largely on a television role he played during the late 1960s. Name this man who once claimed, “When I speak, I never, ever talk like Every. Word. Is. Its. Own. Sentence.” He played Captain James T. Kirk.


ANSWER: (William) Shatner


Bonus (5 Parts)

Identify these actors from the soon-to-be-cancelled The West Wing:

A. She plays First Lady Abbey Bartlet and is now on the show Out Of Practice

B. He played Sam Seaborn. He can be found in many movies from the 1980s and 1990s, including Wayne’s World and Austin Powers, but he is not Mike Myers.

C. He plays Matthew Vicente Santos. Previously, he had major roles on LA Law and NYPD Blue.

D. He plays President Josiah Bartlet.

E. He plays Arnold Vinick. He has been nominated for an Emmy 29 times and an Oscar once.


A. Stockard Channing (accept either half of answer)   B. (Rob) Lowe   C. (Jimmy) Smits D. (Martin) Sheen (or Ramon Estevez)   E. (Alan) Alda (or Alphonso D’Abruzzo)


11. Tossup Literature/Language Arts

This eight-letter word is defined to mean as of such a nature that one part may be used in place of another equal part in the satisfaction of an obligation. It describes things that can be measured and can be consumed. This synonym of interchangeable begins with the letter F.


ANSWER: Fungible



Bonus (5 Parts)

A portmanteau is a word formed by combining two other words. Identify these portmanteaus:

A. Robot technology associated with Disney World

B. Paid programming

C. Hybrid two-wheeler that typically goes about 35 miles per hour

D. Consisting of letters and digits

E. Application of lessons from nature into engineering


A. Animatronics     B. Infomercial     C. Moped

D. Alphanumeric     E. Bionics


12. Tossup Social Studies

Sometimes referred to as the Switzerland of the Americas, this nation abolished its army in 1949. Located in Central America, it has a stable constitutional government, and its Presidency is currently being sought by Nobel Peace Prize Winner Oscar Arias. Name this country located between Nicaragua and Panama.


ANSWER: Costa Rica


Bonus (4 Parts)

Name these famous men from Switzerland:

A. If he was real, he lived in the early 1300s in Altdorf, which was ruled by an Austrian named Gessler.

B. A large boulder in Switzerland is inscribed “’They may kill the body but not the soul’ so spoke on this spot,” this man, “who for truth and the freedom of the Christian Church died a hero’s death, October 11, 1531.”

C. He moved to France to study medicine and started a newspaper that helped bring about the Reign of Terror. Charlotte Corday stabbed him to death in his bathtub.

D. This founder of the Red Cross Society lived from 1828 to 1910.


A. (William) Tell     B. (Ulrich) Zwingli

C. (Jean Paul) Marat     D. (Jean Henri) Dunant


13. Tossup Mathematics (30 Seconds)

Give your answer in radians. What is the period of the graph of y equals the sum of ‘sine squared of x’ plus ‘two times the cosine squared of x’?










Bonus (3 Parts)

Answer the following questions about the graph of the function y equals two plus three times the tangent of the quantity two x plus two pi over 5. Note that the only thing being divided by 5 is two pi.

A. What is the lowest positive value of x such that y = 2?

B. What is the lowest positive value of x such that the function is undefined?

C. What is the lowest positive value of x such that y = -1?


A. 3pi/10 or 0.3pi     B. pi/20 or 0.05pi     C. 7pi/40 or 0.175pi     (Accept equivalents)


14. Tossup Science (10 Seconds)

These molecules have two distinct parts. One part, the phytol chain, contains a lot of methyl groups and holds onto lipids. The other part, the tetrapyrrolic ring, has a magnesium ion in the center. Type A is found in blue-green bacteria, while other kinds are often found in algae and plants. Name these molecules whose name means green leaf.


ANSWER: Chlorophyll


Bonus (4 Parts)

Identify the term from the definition. All terms end with the suffix –phyte:

A. A non-vascular plant such as moss

B. Diploid phase of life that is the primary life form of flowering plants

C. Haploid phase of life that is the secondary life form of flowering plants

D. A beginner—this term is applied to humans more often than plants


A. Bryophyte     B. Sporophyte     C. Gametophyte     D. Neophyte


15. Tossup Miscellaneous

Sports Illustrated once named her its MVO. Originally hired in 1970, she is still working her original job though other jobs with DePaul and Chicago’s indoor teams have come and gone. Until this year, she had not missed a game since a 1983 maternity leave. Name this woman who inspired Harry Caray to sing and popularized “Na Na Hey Hey Kiss Him Goodbye”. She is the organist for the Chicago White Sox.


ANSWER: (Nancy) Faust


Bonus (4 Parts)

Identify the White Sox player:

A. He made many big defensive plays in the first game of the World Series, and he hit the game winning home run in the fourth inning

B. He hit a walk-off home run in the bottom of the ninth inning of the the second game

C. He hit a home run in the 14th inning of Game Three

D. This Series MVP had the only RBI in Game Four


A. (Joe) Crede   B. (Scott) Podsednik   C. (Geoff) Blum   D. (Jermaine) Dye


16. Tossup Literature/Language Arts

This character first appeared in The Secret of the Old Clock. Her mother died a long time ago, and her father is a lawyer. She was written about by Mildred Wirt Benson and others using the pseudonym Carolyn Keene. Name this teenage detective often linked with the Hardy Boys.


ANSWER: Nancy Drew


Bonus (4 Parts)

Name these characters that appear in more than one novel:

A. His first name is Reginald, he works for Bertie Wooster, and he was created by PG Wodehouse

B. Her first name is Jane, she lives in Saint Mary Mead, and she was created by Agatha Christie

C. Created by Erle Stanley Gardner, this attorney usually proves his client is innocent by solving a murder mystery

D. This private eye appears in the novels The Big Sleep and The Long Goodbye


A. Jeeves   B. (Miss) Marple   C. (Perry) Mason   D. (Philip) Marlowe


17. Tossup Social Studies

He was born in Greece, and he defeated the Greek army at the Battles of Sakarya and Dumlupinar. On another front, he signed the Treaty of Kars with the Soviet Union. Once in power, he promoted rights for women and made it illegal for a man to wear a fez. Name this man who disbanded the Ottoman Empire and became the head of Turkey.


ANSWER: (Mustafa Kemal) Ataturk (accept Kemal)


Bonus (4 Parts)

Answer these questions about events in 1932:

A. While the rest of the world was following war between China and Japan and the rise of Hitler in Germany, what story dominated American headlines in March, April, and May? The story took place in Hopewell, New Jersey.

B. What nickname was given to the group forcibly evicted from Washington, DC in July?

C. What job did Franklin Roosevelt hold as he ran for President?

D. What international event took place in the United States from February 4th through 15th and July 30th through August 14th? Because of the international depression, fewer countries than normal were interested in hosting or participating.


A. Lindbergh Kidnapping (or equivalents)

B. Bonus (Army, March, or Expeditionary Force)

C. New York Governor (prompt Governor)     D. Olympics





18. Tossup Mathematics (30 Seconds)

Find the shortest distance between the line 5x+12y=0 and the circle (x-5)2+(y-12)2=25




Bonus (4 Parts)

Solve for x in the following equations. Give all possible answers:

A. 10 Permutation x equals 720

B. x Permutation 2 equals 1190

C. 8 Combination x equals 56

D. x Combination 4 equals 15


A. 3   B. 35   C. 3 & 5   D. 6


19. Tossup Science (10 Seconds)

Types of this common phenomenon include upslope and precipitation. The radiation type is formed at night in valleys, while the advection type is formed by warm air blowing over cool surfaces. Name this atmospheric hazard found near the ground.




Bonus (4 Parts)

Answer the following questions about the NOAA, whose mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth’s environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet our nation’s economic, social and environmental needs.

A. What does NOAA stand for?

B. What cabinet-level department does it fall under? This department is currently headed by Carlos Gutierrez.

C. What agency, probably the best-known branch of NOAA, is abbreviated NWS?

D. Where does the fisheries branch have a research lab? It is a village inside the town of Falmouth at the Southwest tip of Cape Cod.


A. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

B. Commerce     C. National Weather Service     D. Woods Hole


20. Tossup Fine Arts

This song begins with a whole note A that is the lowest note in the first section, followed by an eighth rest, a dotted quarter F sharp, quarter A, quarter D, eighth F sharp, eighth D, and dotted half D. Though the lyrics vary, they usually refer to Sugar Hill in Harlem. Name this standard written by Billy Strayhorn and often performed by Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, and anybody who has ever owned a saxophone. It says, “Listen to those rails a-humming.”


ANSWER: Take The A Train (prompt A Train)



Bonus (4 Parts)

Given the song, name the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical it is found in:

A. Any Dream Will Do

B. Old Deuteronomy

C. Girl Meets Boy

D. You Must Love Me


A. Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat     B. Cats

C. Sunset Boulevard     D. Evita


21. Tossup Literature/Language Arts

This Shakespeare character asks, “Where think’st thou he is now? Stand he, or sits he? Or does he walk? Or is he on his horse?” The man she loves had recently become a widower, but he soon marries another woman. Name this woman whose attendants are named Charmian and Iras. This queen eventually kills herself with asps.


ANSWER: Cleopatra


Bonus (4 Parts)

Given the name of a Shakespeare character, state which other character he serves:

A. Earl of Kent

B. Malvolio

C. Reynaldo

D. Balthasar


A. Lear     B. Olivia     C. Polonius     D. Romeo


22. Tossup Social Studies

This is the only city in Japan with an extensive streetcar system. Located at the mouth of the Ota River, its baseball team is known as the Toyo Carp, and many of its citizens work for Mazda. Its nicknames include “City of Water” and “City of Peace”. Each year, the mayor delivers a speech titled “The Peace Declaration” on August 6th.


ANSWER: Hiroshima













Bonus (4 Parts)

Identify these California cities

A. Located at the South end of San Francisco Bay, it recently surpassed San Francisco in population

B. Located just South of Los Angeles, this diverse city with a population over 400,000 houses The RMS Queen Mary and The Aquarium of the Pacific

C. This city near San Francisco has some major professional sports teams, including the Golden State Warriors

D. The most populous city in California not located on the Pacific Ocean, it is located 80 miles South of Yosemite National Park


A. San Jose   B. Long Beach   C. Oakland   D. Fresno


23. Tossup Mathematics (10 Seconds)

If a group has this property, then any subgroup is normal. All cyclic groups have this property. Groups that have it are called abelian. Though it applies to matrix addition, it does not apply to matrix multiplication. Name this property which states that, “X operation Y equals Y operation X.”


ANSWER: Commutative (accept abelian before it is mentioned, accept more specific answers or Commutation)


Bonus (4 Parts)

Answer these questions about alternative geometries:

A. In this form of geometry, given a point and a line not containing that point, there are two distinct lines through the point that do not intersect the original line.

B. Which Russian mathematician published a work on this type of geometry in 1829?

C. Which Hungarian mathematician published an independent but similar work soon afterwards?

D. Which German mathematician, who lived from 1826 to 1866, is sometimes credited with developing another type of geometry that violates the parallel postulate?


A. Hyperbolic (or Saddle Geometry)     B. (Nikolai Ivanovich) Lobachevsky

C. (Janus) Bolyai     D. (Georg Friedrich Bernhard) Riemann


24. Tossup Science (10 Seconds)

Examples include the pressure of a gas and the freezing-point depression caused by a solute. What adjective is used to describe properties that are determined by the number of particles present in the system but are independent of the properties of the individual particles? This 11-letter term begins with the letter C.


ANSWER: Colligative (Property)





Bonus (4 Parts)

Answer these questions about iron:

A. The 3d subshell can normally hold ten electrons, but it is only partially filled for iron atoms. How many electrons are in the 3d subshell in an iron atom?

B. Most iron in the United States used to be found in which ore? This mineral is made of iron three oxide.

C. Which ore combines iron three oxide with iron two oxide? It can be combined with other iron compounds to form taconite.

D. Which two elements other than iron are considered part of The Iron Family? They follow immediately after iron in the periodic table.


A. 6     B. Hematite     C. Magnetite     D. Cobalt and Nickel


25. Tossup Miscellaneous

It started out in 1847 as a supporter of the Know Nothing Party, using much of its space to criticize foreigners and Catholics. Joseph Medill bought it and used it to support the Republican Party and Abraham Lincoln. It bought a radio station in 1924 and changed the station’s call letters to stand for World’s Greatest Newspaper. In 1925, it moved into its current home at 435 North Michigan Avenue. Name this newspaper.


ANSWER: (The Chicago) Tribune (Company)


Bonus (4 Parts)

Answer these questions about the history of Chicago:

A. What name was given to the fort built at the mouth of the Chicago River in the early 1800s? It was named after Thomas Jefferson’s Secretary of War.

B. Who made a lot of money converting railroad cars into luxury vehicles? During the 1880s, his reputation changed from an enlightened employer to a tough strikebreaker.

C. What name was given to the world’s fair held in Chicago in 1893?

D. Who worked with Edward Bennett to create a plan for Chicago published in 1909?


A. Dearborn     B. (George) Pullman

C. (World’s) Columbian Exposition     D. (Daniel) Burnham


26. Tossup Literature/Language Arts

The 22nd and final part of this poem begins, “By the shore of Gitche Gumee, By the shining Big-Sea-Water, At the doorway of his wigwam, In the pleasant Summer morning.” It was completed in 1855 by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.


ANSWER: (The Song of) Hiawatha







Bonus (4 Parts)

Given the quote, name the poet:

A. Poems are made by fools like me, But only God can make a tree.

B. I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference.

C. Dreams are well but Waking's better.

D. Poetry Is a Destructive Force


A. (Ogden) Nash     B. (Robert) Frost     C. (Emily) Dickinson     D. (Wallace) Stevens


27. Tossup Social Studies

What group moved from New York State to Kirtland, Ohio in 1831? In 1838, they moved to Jackson County, Missouri, and then moved to Commerce, Illinois, a town they renamed in 1839. Their leader was shot in 1844, and they moved further West in 1848. Name this group led by Joseph Smith and then Brigham Young.


ANSWER: Church (of Jesus Christ) of Latter-Day Saints (or Mormons)


Bonus (5 Parts)

John Quincy Adams served as both Secretary of State and President. Name the five other men who have held both positions.


(James) Buchanan, (Thomas) Jefferson, (James) Madison, (James) Monroe, (Martin) Van Buren


28. Tossup Mathematics (30 Seconds)

Points A and B are the endpoints of the diameter of a circle, point C lies on the circle, and point D is between A and B such that AB is perpendicular to CD. If AC is of length 4 and BC is of length 3, find the length of CD.


ANSWER: 12/5 (or 2 2/5 or 2.4)


Bonus (4 Parts)

Find the following for a rhombus in which each side is one unit and at least one of the internal angles is sixty degrees.

A. Area

B. Length of shorter diagonal

C. Length of longer diagonal

D. Height


A. (Root 3)/2     B. 1     C. Root 3     D. (Root 3)/2







29. Tossup Science (10 Seconds)

This Frenchman wrote Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire. His ideas are sometimes considered a first step towards the discovery of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and his practical contributions to engineering are often demonstrated using a temperature-entropy diagram. Name this engineer whose cycle led to the design of efficient heat engines.


ANSWER: (Nicolas Léonard Sadi) Carnot


Bonus (3 Parts)

Give the name for each of the thermodynamic quantities:

A. Internal energy plus pressure times volume

B. Internal energy plus pressure times volume minus temperature times entropy

C. Internal energy minus temperature times entropy


A. Enthalpy     B. Gibbs Free Energy     C. Helmholtz Free Energy

(prompt Free Energy for B or C)


30. Tossup Fine Arts

His final work was decorating a cathedral in Spoleto. Some of his famous works include a fresco showing the Feast of Herod and a painting showing Madonna and Child where the baby is held up by two angels. Name this painter who married late in life after being released by the Pope from vows to be a monk. He was a prominent painter in Florence in the mid-fifteenth century.


ANSWER: (Fra Filippo) Lippi


Bonus (4 Parts)

I’ll give you trios of painters in alphabetical order. For each trio, put them in order based on when they were born starting with the earliest:

A. Boticelli, Rubens, Van Gogh

B. Goya, El Greco, Raphael

C. Monet, Seurat, Toulouse-Latrec

D. Whistler, Wood, Wyeth


A. Boticelli, Rubens, Van Gogh     B. Raphael, El Greco, Goya

C. Monet, Seurat, Toulouse-Latrec     D. Whistler, Wood, Wyeth


Extra Questions:

What eleven-letter term referring to a certain group of people comes from the Latin word for offspring? It originally referred to people whose sons were their main source of wealth. This term had negative connotations until it was used during the nineteenth century by a writer who believed that this class of people would bring about a positive revolution leading to the downfall of Capitalism. The writer was Karl Marx.


ANSWER: Proletariat (accept Proletarian)

If you roll two standard dice, what is the probability that the sum is at least seven?


ANSWER: 7/12


Bonus (4 Parts)

Identify the mathematical term given its nonmathematical definition:

A. Mutually existing or corresponding to each other

B. To propagate, magnify, or amplify

C. Marked by a considerable departure from the traditional

D. Distinguishing, or a nonsimilarity between comparable things


A. Reciprocal     B. Multiply     C. Radical     D. Differential