The Mark Discordia Singles Tournament

Playoff Round 7

Question Set 10: 20 tossups plus tiebreaker

 

Editing and non-science questions by Matt Weiner

Science by Anthony de Jesus, the Washington University Academic Team, and Matt Weiner

 

1. Chronicled by Thomas May, it issued the Nineteen Propositions and abolished the High Commission and the Court of the Star Chamber. Convened to approve taxes to finance a war in Scotland, attempts to arrest its members sparked the English Civil War. FTP, name this parliament in place from 1640 to 1648, when Pride’s Purge caused it to be dubbed the Rump Parliament.

ANSWER: Long Parliament

 

2. Robert K. Merton extended this concept to criminology, presenting a table in which goals, means, both, or neither were socially acceptable. Coined in The Division of Labour in Society, it reappeared as a cause in the theory of suicide. FTP, identify this term for a breakdown of social norms, invented by Emile Durkheim.

ANSWER: anomie

 

3. The lyric poet Stesichorus probably originated the legend that this character was replaced by a phantom double for the duration of the Trojan War, a story later picked up by Euripides in a namesake play, which has her reunite with her husband in Egypt. She drugs the wine in Book IV of the Odyssey and is almost killed by Aeneas in Book II of the Aeneid. FTP, identify this queen of Sparta and wife of Menelaus, the “face that launched a thousand ships.”

ANSWER: Helen of Troy [or Helen of Sparta]

 

4. Its genome is nineteen kilobases in length and contains seven genes. Its length varies   but averages 805 nanometers, while its diameter remains constant at around eighty nanometers. It first appeared in 1976, with two unrelated outbreaks occurring almost simultaneously. FTP, identify this filovirus that causes a severe hemorrhagic fever, named after a tributary of the Congo River.

ANSWER: ebola

 

5. It is possible because crystalline binding energies are large compared with the kinetic energies of individual atoms, making the recoil kinetic energy small. Resonant energy is demonstrated when gamma ray energies are Doppler-shifted near the resonance peak as the radiation source is moved relative to the absorber. FTP, name this effect, allowing the precise measurement of small changes in photon energy.

ANSWER: Mössbauer effect

 

6. Nick bribes Billy Jackrabbit, companion of Wowkle, to take time in preparing a noose for Ramerrez, aka Dick Johnson, who enters immediately after the singing of “Laggiu nel Soledad, ero piccina.” We also hear ”Oh, se sapeste” in defense of the solitary life. Rance and Sonora join Johnson as the suitors of the title character, Minnie. FTP, name this opera set during the California gold rush, with a libretto by Guelfo Civinini and Carlo Zangarini based on a Belasco play, with score by Puccini.

ANSWER: The Girl of the Golden West [or La Fanciulla del West]

 

7. None exist for systems which undergo processes involving hysteresis. Examples include the Curie one for describing paramagnetic solids, the Berthelot, and the Clausius varieties. They relate a finite number of independent variables. FTP, name these empirical or derived items, such as the Van der Waals, which relate the thermodynamic properties of a system in an equation.

ANSWER: equations of state [or characteristic equations]

 

8. His first novel, Weep Not, Child, was followed by The River Between. He was briefly imprisoned after the publication of Petals of Blood, while another dissenting work is the play “I Will Marry When I Want.” His foremost novel is told through a frame story set just before a country is to gain independence. That work tells of the mysterious Mugo; a love triangle between Mumbi, Gikonyo and Karanja; and the betrayal and death of Kihika. FTP, name this Kenyan author of A Grain of Wheat.

ANSWER: James Ngugi wa Thiong’o

 

9. In the intro to the Dead Milkmen’s “Bitchin’ Camaro,” this song is parodied by the injection of new lyrics about AIDS and a hope that the band won’t sue in the People’s Court. The third track on Strange Days, it mentions an inability to speak and weak knees. The singer attempts to acquire a reserve lasting the week in advance of “goin’ away.” FTP, identify this Doors song which commands repeated affection.

ANSWER: “Love Me Two Times

 

10. At the Battle of Samgarb, he defeated his rivals for the throne. His armies forced the institution of tribute from Tanjore and Trichinopoly and conquered Bijapur and Golconda; the only major king to resist him was the Maratha ruler Sivaji. His reign was marked by the re-institution of the poll tax against non-Muslims and various persecutions of Sikhs and Hindus. FTP, name this last of the Great Moguls, who succeeded Shah Jahan.

ANSWER: Aurangzeb Alamgir [or Muhiyuddin]

 

11. His earliest professional artwork was lighthearted drawings in the art noveau style for magazines such as L’Assiette au Beurre and Le Charivari. Under the patronage of Léonce Rosenberg and D.H. Kahnweiler, he produced paper collages such as The Sunblind and traditional works including Violin and Fruit Dish, but his legacy is in modern works such as Woman with a Basket and The Red Book. FTP, name this chief developer of synthetic cubism, painter of Homage to Picasso and The Man at the Café.

ANSWER: Juan Gris [or José Victoriano Carmelo Carlos González-Pérez]

 

12. Fell’s Cave, located in this region, is an important site for anthropological dating. Home to Torres del Paine and Cave of the Hands national parks, its indigenous inhabitants are the large-stature Tehuelche people. Its namesake hot desert is the third largest in the world. Its boundaries are usualy marked as the Río Colorado to the Strait of Magellan. FTP, identify this region of South America, comprising the southern parts of Chile and Argentina.

ANSWER: Patagonia

 

13. After winning appointment as a soloist at the Imperial Ballet in 1898, he rejected the traditional segregation of dance, music, and costume in favor of a unified theory of ballet. He choreographed Le Pavillon d'Armide, Les Sylphides, Le Spectre de la Rose, The Story of Joseph, and Daphnis and Chloe, and he created The Dying Swan for Anna Pavlova. FTP, name this man, hired by Sergei Diaghilev in 1909 as choreographer for the Ballets Russes, the choreographer of Petrushka and The Firebird.

ANSWER: Michel Fokine

 

14. Gondwanaland still existed throughout this period, but Laurasia was completely broken apart. Placoderm and psilophyte fossils date from this period, which saw the first appearance of jawed fish, air breathing animals such as scorpions, and vascular plants. FTP, identify this third period of the Paleozoic Era, occuring between 438 million and 408 million years ago, between the Ordovician and Devonian.

ANSWER: Silurian Period

 

15. In his side career as an education theorist, he wrote Education and Freedom. He found another line of advancement after being denied the captaincy of the USS S-48, parlaying an assistant directorship of Oak Ridge into the chieftancies of Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Power Division of the Navy. FTP, identify this admiral who oversaw construction of the Nautilus, beginning the age of atomic submarines.

ANSWER: Admiral Hyman George Rickover

 

16. For a well-behaved function f with three variables, the curl of this applied to f is always zero. It is important in conjunction with Lagrange multipliers in finding critical points in multivariate functions, and a useful side property of this function is that at any point on the graph, it is orthogonal to the level surface. FTP, name this vector function which finds the direction of the maximum rate of change.

ANSWER: gradient

 

17. It debuted in 1930 with Gertrude Lawrence and the author playing the leads. Its first act ends with the abandonment of second spouses Victor and Sibyl, as the formerly married Mr. Chase and Ms. Prynne run off to Paris, only to discover that the original divorce was probably for the best. It features several exchanges of barbs, such as when Elyot claims that “It doesn’t suit women to be promiscuous,” and Amanda fires back with “It doesn’t suit men for women to be promiscuous.” FTP, name this Noel Coward play.

ANSWER: “Private Lives

 

18. There were five of them, but the most important one was named Fintan. It acquired its defining characteristic from eating Buan, enchanted hazelnuts. Finegas failed to find it for a time, and when it was finally captured, its benefit went to the wrong person when the cook sucked a burnt thumb during grilling. FTP, identify this resident of the River Boyne, an enchanted fish eaten by Finn Mac Cumhail.

ANSWER: the salmon of wisdom [accept Fintan before it is mentioned; accept salmon of knowledge]

 

19. In his later career, he wrote romantic comedies such as “Dream Girl, “ a far cry from his politically charged early works such as “We, the People“ and “A New Life.“ He introduced the dramatic flashback to American literature with 1914’s “On Trial“ and he became one of the first American expressonists with the publication of “The Adding Machine.“ FTP, name this author who won the 1929 Pulitzer Prize in Drama for “Street Scene. “

ANSWER: Elmer Leopold Rice [or Elmer Reizenstein]

 

20. Long before Strom Thurmond, this man was known for his all-night filibusters. He negotiated the “Kilmainham Treaty” from prison, led the opposition to Charles Boycott, and issued the “No Rent Manifesto.” Justin McCarthy succeeded him after a scandal involving Kitty O’Shea. FTP, name this founder of the Irish National Land League, a vocal advocate for home rule in Parliament.

ANSWER: Charles Stewart Parnell

 

Tiebreaker:

At one entrance to the scene of these events, a sign reading “Turn left or get shot” was erected. Reporting on them won Robert Richardson a Pulitzer Prize. Sparked by a drunk driving arrest, they lasted for five days, and thirty-four were killed. FTP, identify the Los Angeles neighborhood which lent its name to riots in 1965.

ANSWER: Watts riots [prompt on Los Angeles riots]